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    What Is
    Value Investing?


    Submitted By: Geoff Gannon


    | Word Count: 1612 | Views: 128

    Different sources define value investing differently. Some say value investing is the investment philosophy that favors the purchase of stocks that are currently selling at low price-to-book ratios and have high dividend yields. Others say value investing is all about buying stocks with low P/E ratios. You will even sometimes hear that value investing has more to do with the balance sheet than the income statement.

    In his 1992 letter to Berkshire Hathaway shareholders,

    Warren Buffet wrote:

    We think the very term ‘value investing’ is redundant. What is ‘investing’ if it is not the act of seeking value at least sufficient to justify the amount paid? Consciously paying more for a stock than its calculated value - in the hope that it can soon be sold for a still-higher price - should be labeled speculation (which is neither illegal, immoral nor - in our view - financially fattening).

    Whether appropriate or not, the term ‘value investing’ is widely used. Typically, it connotes the purchase of stocks having attributes such as a low ratio of price to book value, a low price-earnings ratio, or a high dividend yield. Unfortunately, such characteristics, even if they appear in combination, are far from determinative as to whether an investor is indeed buying something for what it is worth and is therefore truly operating on the principle of obtaining value in his investments. Correspondingly, opposite characteristics - a high ratio of price to book value, a high price-earnings ratio, and a low dividend yield - are in no way inconsistent with a ‘value’ purchase. Buffett’s definition of investing is the best definition of value investing there is. Value investing is purchasing a stock for less than its calculated value.

    Tenets of Value Investing

    1) Each share of stock is an ownership interest in the underlying business. A stock is not simply a piece of paper that can be sold at a higher price on some future date. Stocks represent more than just the right to receive future cash distributions from the business. Economically, each share is an undivided interest in all corporate assets (both tangible and intangible) and ought to be valued as such.

    2) A stock has an intrinsic value. A stock’s intrinsic value is derived from the economic value of the underlying business.

    3) The stock market is inefficient. Value investors do not subscribe to the Efficient Market Hypothesis. They believe shares frequently trade hands at prices above or below their intrinsic values. Occasionally, the difference between the market price of a share and the intrinsic value of that share is wide enough to permit profitable investments. Benjamin Graham, the father of value investing, explained the stock market’s inefficiency by employing a metaphor. His Mr. Market metaphor is still referenced by value investors today:

    Imagine that in some private business you own a small share that cost you $1,000. One of your partners, named Mr. Market, is very obliging indeed. Every day he tells you what he thinks your interest is worth and furthermore offers either to buy you out or sell you an additional interest on that basis. Sometimes his idea of value appears plausible and justified by business developments and prospects as you know them. Often, on the other hand, Mr. Market lets his enthusiasm or his fears run away with him, and the value he proposes seems to you a little short of silly.

    4) Investing is most intelligent when it is most businesslike. This is a quote from Benjamin Graham’s The Intelligent Investor. Warren Buffett believes it is the single most important investing lesson he was ever taught. Investors ought to treat investing with the seriousness and studiousness they treat their chosen profession. An investor should treat the shares he buys and sells as a shopkeeper would treat the merchandise he deals in. He must not make commitments where his knowledge of the merchandise is inadequate. Furthermore, he must not engage in any investment operation unless a reliable calculation shows that it has a fair chance to yield a reasonable profit.

    5) A true investment requires a margin of safety. A margin of safety may be provided by a firm’s working capital position, past earnings performance, land assets, economic goodwill, or (most commonly) a combination of some or all of the above. The margin of safety is manifested in the difference between the quoted price and the intrinsic value of the business. It absorbs all the damage caused by the investor’s inevitable miscalculations. For this reason, the margin of safety must be as wide as we humans are stupid (which is to say it ought to be a veritable chasm). Buying dollar bills for ninety-five cents only works if you know what you’re doing; buying dollar bills for forty-five cents is likely to prove profitable even for mere mortals like us.

    What Value Investing Is Not

    Value investing is purchasing a stock for less than its calculated value. Surprisingly, this fact alone separates value investing from most other investment philosophies.

    True (long-term) growth investors such as Phil Fisher focus solely on the value of the business. They do not concern themselves with the price paid, because they only wish to buy shares in businesses that are truly extraordinary. They believe that the phenomenal growth such businesses will experience over a great many years will allow them to benefit from the wonders of compounding. If the business’ value compounds fast enough, and the stock is held long enough, even a seemingly lofty price will eventually be justified.

    Some so-called value investors do consider relative prices. They make decisions based on how the market is valuing other public companies in the same industry and how the market is valuing each dollar of earnings present in all businesses. In other words, they may choose to purchase a stock simply because it appears cheap relative to its peers, or because it is trading at a lower P/E ratio than the general market, even though the P/E ratio may not appear particularly low in absolute or historical terms. Should such an approach be called value investing? I don’t think so. It may be a perfectly valid investment philosophy, but it is a different investment philosophy.

    Value investing requires the calculation of an intrinsic value that is independent of the market price. Techniques that are supported solely (or primarily) on an empirical basis are not part of value investing. The tenets set out by Graham and expanded by others (such as Warren Buffett) form the foundation of a logical edifice.

    Although there may be empirical support for techniques within value investing, Graham founded a school of thought that is highly logical. Correct reasoning is stressed over verifiable hypotheses; and causal relationships are stressed over correlative relationships. Value investing may be quantitative; but, it is arithmetically quantitative.

    There is a clear (and pervasive) distinction between quantitative fields of study that employ calculus and quantitative fields of study that remain purely arithmetical. Value investing treats security analysis as a purely arithmetical field of study. Graham and Buffett were both known for having stronger natural mathematical abilities than most security analysts, and yet both men stated that the use of higher math in security analysis was a mistake. True value investing requires no more than basic math skills.

    Contrarian investing is sometimes thought of as a value investing sect. In practice, those who call themselves value investors and those who call themselves contrarian investors tend to buy very similar stocks.

    Let’s consider the case of David Dreman, author of The Contrarian Investor. David Dreman is known as a contrarian investor. In his case, it is an appropriate label, because of his keen interest in behavioral finance. However, in most cases, the line separating the value investor from the contrarian investor is fuzzy at best. Dreman’s contrarian investing strategies are derived from three measures: price to earnings, price to cash flow, and price to book value. These same measures are closely associated with value investing and especially so-called Graham and Dodd investing (a form of value investing named for Benjamin Graham and David Dodd, the co-authors of Security Analysis).

    Conclusions:

    Ultimately, value investing can only be defined as paying less for a stock than its calculated value, where the method used to calculate the value of the stock is truly independent of the stock market. Where the intrinsic value is calculated using an analysis of discounted future cash flows or of asset values, the resulting intrinsic value estimate is independent of the stock market. But, a strategy that is based on simply buying stocks that trade at low price-to-earnings, price-to-book, and price-to-cash flow multiples relative to other stocks is not value investing. Of course, these very strategies have proven quite effective in the past, and will likely continue to work well in the future.

    The magic formula devised by Joel Greenblatt is an example of one such effective technique that will often result in portfolios that resemble those constructed by true value investors. However, Joel Greenblatt’s magic formula does not attempt to calculate the value of the stocks purchased.

    So, while the magic formula may be effective, it isn’t true value investing. Joel Greenblatt is himself a value investor, because he does calculate the intrinsic value of the stocks he buys. Greenblatt wrote "The Little Book That Beats The Market" for an audience of investors that lacked either the ability or the inclination to value businesses.

    You can not be a value investor unless you are willing to calculate business values. To be a value investor, you don't have to value the business precisely - but, you do have to value the business.

    Published At:

    Isnare Free Articles Directory http://www.isnare.com
    Permanent Link:

    http://www.isnare.com/?aid=41815&ca=Finances
                 






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    Unique Investment Opptions & Portal

    WhaT to invest in, today ??


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    Primarily, i hope to build and develop very unique investments which will appeal to everyone.


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    Investment strategies & FeaR issues:


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    Invest time, money, expertise, secret knowledge and trade secrets ... Instead of Fear ? FeaR of wasted time, wasted money and more ...

    By Michael Matthews, pioneer of WiNabled concepts and solutions. He is a well known asset of the FuTuRe ConCepTs GrouP of Doe Valley, Kentucky. Managed by i trust (iT!)



    Instead of fear, How positive rewards can get people to do what you expect, be part of the team and work together in a happy environment.

    Internet Money requires Management >> the act of directing, guiding, controlling, administrating for a purpose. How one "manages" however, is usually up to the individual.

    Management of people, like teaching and training usually relies on positive or negative reinforcement for ones actions. Positive reinforcement can be thought of as building trust, whereby leading to earning internet money thru honest partnerships.







    Can you really "get rich quick" with HYIP's of is Forex a better choice? And lets not forget about profit potentials of Futures, Doublers, and Currencies:


    Finance Articles | January 4, 2005


    Can you really "get rich quick" with HYIP's?:


    How Long Does It Takes to Become a Millionaire with HYIPs or Forex?


    Let's assume you start with $500 to invest.


    Although you can invest in some HYIPs with as little as $10, you would probably want to invest at least $500 to provide some basic diversification. It's about the amount you would spend to get the usual MLM type program started, after you include "upgrade fees" and initial advertising. Not to speak of the hours of posting and promoting you will NOT have to do with a passive HYIP investment.


    Do not use money you must have for rent or food. If you must start with less, resign yourself to the possibility that you could lose your whole stake, and have to start over again. If you are persistent and play the odds correctly, you will win in the end.


    Here is how long it would take to go from $500 to $1,000,000 at various rates
    of interest compounded monthly using an online High Yield Investment Programs.


    5% -- Forever! (Almost)

    10% -- 6 years 8 months


    15% -- 5 years 6 months

    20% -- 3 years 6 months

    30% -- 2 years 5 months


    40% -- 1 year 11 months

    50% -- 1 year 7 months

    60% -- 1 year 5 months

    70% -- 1 year 3 months

    80% -- 1 year 1 month

    90% -- 1 year


    100% -- 11 months

    110% -- 11 months


    120% -- 10 months

    130% -- 10 months 2 weeks

    140% -- 9 months

    150% -- 9 months


    There are some interesting things to learn from this chart.


    From 5% to 10% there is a massive drop in time, there is another pretty big drop at 20%, a smaller but worthwhile drop at 30%, again at 40% and marginally at 50%, but from there each 10% more has a rather small effect.


    From 80% to 150% notice that even though you have almost double the interest (added 70% to it) you only shave 4 months off the time (reduced the time it takes by about 30%)


    Making a bar graph of the above (with 10%, 20%, 30% up to 100%) will show you what the best percentages are.


    10% llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllll

    15% llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllll

    20% llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllll

    30% llllllllllll llllllllllll lllll

    40% llllllllllll lllllllllll


    50% llllllllllll lllllll


    60% llllllllllll lllll

    70% llllllllllll lll

    80% llllllllllll l

    90% llllllllllll

    100% lllllllllll

    110% lllllllllll

    120% llllllllll

    130% llllllllll


    140% lllllllll

    150% lllllllll


    The graph shows us very clearly that between 30% and 50% is the best range.
    However 20% is a big advantage over 10% that's for sure, and is the first really worthwhile interest.


    OK, now let's assume you join HYIPs that pays 40% interest per month (Compounded).
    How long will it take you to get to 1 million?


    Starting


    .05c

    .50c


    $5

    $50

    $500

    $5000

    $50,000

    $500,000

    with


    -- 4 years 3 months


    -- 3 years 8 months

    -- 3 years 1 month

    -- 2 years 6 months

    -- 1 year 11 months

    -- 1 year 4 months

    -- 9 months

    -- 3 months


    llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll lll


    llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll

    llllllllllll llllllllllll llllllllllll l

    llllllllllll llllllllllll llllll

    llllllllllll lllllllllll

    llllllllllll llll

    lllllllll

    lll


    Surprisingly enough, this shows that starting with lots more money really doesn't speed it up all that much.


    If you want to diversify, it is important to remember that you will be hard pressed to invest in more than one program with much less than about $150, although there are some good programs that have minimums in the range of $10 to $50.


    Notice that 500,000 is ten million times more than 5c, yet 5c only takes 17 times longer to reach the same goal!


    This exercise has yielded some interesting results.


    1. Even if you are starting with less money, it will only take about 1 year longer to get to the 1 million dollar point.


    2. While high interest rates are tempting, and there are other good reasons for going after high interests such as closing the "risk window" as soon as possible, you don't really need to go above 40%, and even 20% isn't too bad. Much above 40% and it is extremely likely that the program is a scam or will get overextended at some time and fail . All it takes is a couple of bad trades, or an ugly rumor, for even a good program to get squeezed for liquidity.


    With only $50 and 30% interest per month (compounded), you are a millionaire in 3 years and 2 months! That is not to imply that we would simply rely on any single program to get my million dollars. One primary rule is that no one can ever be 100% sure which program will last more than another week. It is all probabilities. Please remember that. Drill it into your head. It isn't about being right every time. We don't always pick winners. We don't know anyone else in this business who does. You only need to learn to avoid the worst crooks and scams, and be right more often than you are wrong, and remember to spread the risk. Have a little faith. Not all your fellow men are crooks. It only takes a couple of legit, well-managed funds, to more than make up for a couple of losers.


    OK, now let's look at the numbers. At $50,000 with 100% interest compounded every month, you are a millionaire in 5 months.


    At $50 (1/1000th) with less than one third the interest (30%) compounded every month you are a millionaire in 3 years 2 months, only 7.6 times longer, yet much less principle (1/1000th) and much less risk!


    And once you get to 1 million, 7% a month is enough to spend 1 million a year and still have your money well outpace inflation.


    So if someone wanted to get to 1 million dollars (who doesn't) and has the patience to wait a few years, also wants to be pretty sure they will get there rather than losing it, and doesn't want to risk too much, we think about $500 at 20% average per month which will be only 3 years 6 months to become a millionaire.


    A good, and probably the best, argument as to why you should go for high yields, is to close the "risk window" fast. This can be important at the start so you can use the money to diversify. Later you will want more security and you will have a broader base of more secure lower paying programs to provide it. You can go on vacation without worrying that your Very High Yield risky fund has collapsed and taken a large percentage of your "float" with it.


    Of course all the above is based on the assumption that something that gives a 60% interest per month is more than 3 times riskier than 20%. (and will have less than 1/3rd the life span). Not always true, but a rule of thumb. You have got to remember that none of these is like the "invest and forget about it" rules of conventional 3% a year federally insured bank accounts. It is like being an independent adult. You can lose. No one is going to take that loss for you. But let me tell you this, the rewards are much greater also, and they are ALL yours when you earn them by your own self-discipline, persistence and experience.
    Thinking and Speaking about Money in Enriching Ways


    In the book Rich Dad, Poor Dad, Kiyosaki compares his "two fathers": his biological father who was a teacher and his mentor who was a businessman. The teacher was his "poor dad" and the businessman was his "rich dad." His poor dad said: "The love of money is the root of all evil." His rich dad said: "The lack of money is the root of all evil."


    The quote below from Rich Dad, Poor Dad is extremely important. It powerfully illustrates what I call "Slavespeak" -- the phenomenon of certain words having hypnotic, stupefying, and debilitating effects on their users.


    "Because I had two influential fathers, I learned from both of them. I had to think about each dad's advice, and in doing so, I gained valuable insight into the power and effect of one's thoughts on one's life. For example, one dad had a habit of saying, "I can't afford it." The other dad forbade those words to be used. He insisted I say, "How can I afford it?" One is a statement, and the other is a question. One lets you off the hook, the other forces you to think. My soon-to-be-rich dad would explain that by automatically saying the words "I can't afford it," your brain stops working. By asking the question "How can I afford it?" your brain is put to work. He did not mean buy everything you wanted. He was fanatical about exercising your mind, the most powerful computer in the world. "My brain gets stronger every day because I exercise it. The stronger it gets, the more money I can make." He believed that automatically saying "I can't afford it" was a sign of mental laziness."
    An elite team of regular "Joes's" fighting back & making huge cash online one day at a time.
    dDawg as a team has been able to create a profit on the internet.
    http://www.str8junk.com/heavyhitter.html


    ABOUT THE AUTHOR


    An elite team of regular "Joes's" fighting back & making huge cash online one day at a time.
    dDawg as a team has been able to create a profit on the internet.
    http://www.str8junk.com/heavyhitter.html



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